About bovine TB
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Bovine TB poses a significant challenge to the cattle farming industry and costs the taxpayer over £100 million every year. As well as the financial cost, bovine TB also has a devastating impact on farmers and rural communities.
All cattle keepers should consider how they will manage their herd in the event of a TB breakdown. It is recommended that farmers adopt a proactive approach and develop a contingency plan for bovine TB with input from their private vet.
Contingency planning enables farmers to better manage the risks to their business and ultimately reduce the impact of a TB breakdown.
Each cattle enterprise is different and so it is vital that farmers consider their business model and identify specific risks that would arise in the event of a TB breakdown. For example, a large commercial dairy herd spread over several farms will have different risks to a small holding with a pedigree suckler herd.
To control the risk of spreading bovine TB through the movement of cattle with undisclosed infection, only limited and controlled cattle movements onto and off TB restricted premises are permitted. This is why contingency planning around cattle movements is probably the most important part of any business continuity plans for cattle farms in the High Risk and Edge areas of England.
Consider how TB restrictions would impact on your farm business – how could you minimise this?
If your business model requires the movement of cattle on to your holding during a TB breakdown, then sourcing from herds with a lower risk of bovine TB will reduce the risk of introducing further undisclosed infection. There is of course a greater risk that cattle moved on will become infected after introduction to the herd and this will potentially increase the pool of infected cattle and prolong the TB breakdown, adding to the cost of the breakdown both for the keeper and the taxpayer.
Licences for movements on
There are certain situations over the course of a TB breakdown when cattle need to be moved onto a TB restricted holding. Farmers can apply to APHA for a licence in the following circumstances;
Approved Finishing Units (AFU)
If you are in the business of rearing and/or finishing cattle for slaughter and your business model depends on a continuous throughput of cattle, consider becoming an AFU. AFUs are biosecure cattle units approved by APHA which provide a route for rearing, fattening or finishing cattle from TB restricted and un-restricted farms. They are approved in England (excluding the Low Risk Area) and Wales, and there are two types; AFUs without grazing and AFUs with grazing.
AFUs provide an alternative outlet for cattle from TB restricted holdings other than direct to slaughter. This can assist with preventing animal welfare issues and help alleviate financial difficulties for farms under TB restrictions.
Normally herds should be Officially TB Free (OTF) before becoming AFUs but under exceptional circumstances, certain types of units may be allowed to convert to an AFU if they are already under TB restrictions. AFUs by definition operate under TB restrictions at all times as they can accept TB restricted cattle. These units are not intended for pregnant animals and no breeding must take place within them. AFUs are not licensed on fragmented holdings or holdings that have livestock other than cattle on them.
All onward movements from AFUs must be under licence either directly to slaughter or via an approved collection centre or slaughter gathering for TB restricted cattle. Movements to another AFU are only permitted in England.
Click here for an APHA application form and guidance for AFUs in England and Wales
Specific contingency for dairy businesses
Unrestricted herds cannot be restricted solely for the purpose of receiving restricted cattle. If you are dependent on a continuous flow of heifers from another holding, the following contingency planning should be applied;
-Ensuring that your heifers are not reared in an area where bovine TB is endemic. You can check the local TB situation in a particular area by looking at ibTB, an interactive map showing ongoing and closed TB breakdowns in England and Wales
– Ensuring that your heifers are not reared on a holding together with heifers from high risk herds or areas
– Identifying the most likely transmission routes of bovine TB to your herd (your private vet will be able to help) and address these to reduce the risk of a TB breakdown. Click here for information on protecting your herd against bovine TB
If your business model depends on the movement of bulls on to your holding, ensure that you plan in advance and if possible move bulls on before any routine tests to mitigate the impact of TB restrictions if reactors are subsequently disclosed.
Research options in advance
Farmers need to consider their options for moving cattle off their holding during a TB breakdown. Outlets for cattle that need to be moved off whilst under TB restrictions (e.g. dairy calves, store cattle) should be researched in advance, or alternatively plans put in place to rear or milk these animals on farm until they can be moved.
Options for management of dairy heifers must also be considered in the event that they cannot be moved to the intended dairy before calving. Cattle movements will not be licensed from a TB restricted herd to an unrestricted herd. It is important to remember that a licence to move cattle off a TB restricted holding to another holding will not be issued if the VRA concludes that the movement is high risk.
Options for movement of cattle off a TB restricted holding under licence are summarised below;
*Calves under 42 days old do not require testing
Click here for a list of AFUs in England and Wales
There is potential for holdings to remain under prolonged TB restrictions during a TB breakdown and therefore a contingency plan needs to be in place for provision of feed, grazing, housing, labour etc. to avoid overcrowding and welfare issues.
Farmers with an agricultural tenancy agreement should plan ahead and consider how TB restrictions could impact on any planned or unexpected termination of the agreement.
Additional CPH numbers
If a cattle business has two or more separately managed herds (e.g. a dairy herd and beef herd), the farmer may wish to consider applying for one or more additional CPH numbers. This could help to reduce the impact of any future TB breakdown in one of the herds.
The following criteria must be met to apply for an additional CPH;
Click here for information on how to apply for an additional CPH number
In 2016 Defra made changes to simplify the rules on reporting livestock movements and how farms are registered – for more information visit GOV.UK. Farmers need to consider the implications of suffering a TB breakdown when their cattle are located at temporary grazing. From July 2016 cattle keepers using land on a temporary basis must apply to APHA to register that land use under one of the following:
a. Temporary CPH (tCPH)
Temporary CPH numbers last a maximum of one year with an option to renew. A tCPH will be permitted where it lies in a different TB risk area to that of the applicant’s permanent CPH (pCPH). The TB testing interval of the herds will reflect that of the area(s) where each of them is located, except tCPHs in the LRA, which will have the same testing interval as that of their pCPH. TB pre- and post-movement testing rules apply as usual for cattle movements between tCPHs and pCPHs.
Farmers need to consider the implications of suffering a TB breakdown when their cattle are located at a tCPH. In this situation, APHA will not assume by default that cattle kept on tCPHs are separate epidemiological groups from the animals on the applicant’s pCPH and the default position is that TB restrictions are placed on the tCPH. When a pCPH and any additional CPHs (whether permanent or temporary) are TB restricted, movements between them will only be permitted under licence following a VRA. If the tCPH is found to be truly epidemiologically separate in terms of cattle movements and management following VRA, then restrictions may be lifted.
b. Temporary Land Association (TLA)
If a keeper temporarily uses land within 10 miles of a pCPH they hold, they have the option to associate that land to it via a TLA. TLAs last up to a maximum of one year with an option to renew. A TLA will only be permitted where the piece of land is in the same TB risk area to that of the applicant’s pCPH. The land covered will be treated as part of that pCPH for all livestock recording and reporting purposes (i.e. movements do not need to be reported following movements of cattle between the land permanently included in their CPH and the land temporarily associated to it).
Farmers need to consider the implications of suffering a TB breakdown when their cattle are located at a TLA. Cattle on a TLA will be considered to be part of the same epidemiological group as the herd on the applicant’s pCPH and TB restrictions will automatically be applied to the TLA.
Farmers need to be aware of the implications of co-located farmed non bovine species on holdings that suffer a TB breakdown in cattle. Farmed non bovine species such as South American camelids, goats, farmed deer, pigs and sheep are susceptible to TB and are subject to statutory TB controls. If possible, they should be located and managed separately from cattle to avoid any potential transmission of TB between species. Keepers should be aware that separate management of co-located non bovines does not necessarily guarantee that TB restrictions and testing will not be applied to them in the event of a TB breakdown in cattle.