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2.1 Feed, if not managed carefully, can attract wildlife (including badgers) to your farm. Infected badgers can excrete M. bovis through various routes: sputum, urine, faeces and discharges from bite wounds. This can result in contamination of feed and the area around it that can act as a source of indirect transmission to cattle.
Badger-proof feed stores, troughs and mineral licks
Minimise access of badgers to feed stores
2.2 Feed store walls and doors should be secure and doors kept closed (especially at night), following the guidance for buildings at 1.5 above. If you cannot stop visits to feed stores, consider other means of storing feed, for example in secure bins or silos.
2.3 Silage clamps should be well covered and if possible, the face protected by electric fencing or other exclusion measures. If using electric fencing, strands of wire should be at 10, 15, 20 and 30 cm above the ground.
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Minimise access of badgers to feed troughs and mineral licks
2.4 Badgers are likely to be attracted to feed troughs and mineral licks. Accessible feed may increase the likelihood of badgers coming into contact with cattle, either directly, or indirectly through excretions. Although it is difficult to completely exclude badgers from feed troughs and mineral licks, particularly when they are used at pasture, there are measures you can take to make these less attractive and more difficult for badgers to access. These include:
i) When feeding cattle, only use the amount that is needed for the day, so that there won’t be any left for badgers at night.
ii) Cleaning troughs regularly to prevent residue build-up that may attract badgers.
iii) Raising feed troughs as high as possible while still allowing access for cattle. The troughs should have sheer sides and no footholds to make it difficult for badgers to gain access.
iv) Using holders to raise mineral licks as high as possible. These can be free standing with sheer sides and no footholds, attached to gates or suspended from trees. They can be ‘home-made’ or are available to buy.
Don’t put feed on the ground at pasture and clean up spillages
2.5 Placing feed on the ground at pasture is an open invitation to badgers and should be avoided as a method of feeding cattle. It is good practice to also keep your farm free from spilt and waste feed.
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Use clean, fresh water and badger-proof water troughs
2.6 Non-mains water sources may be potentially contaminated by infected livestock or badgers, if these are present in the area. This risk is likely to be greater in the HRA. Mains water, or other clean, fresh water, should be used wherever possible.
2.7 Stagnant ponds and other areas where wildlife may drink should be fenced off.
2.8 As badgers can gain access to water troughs, consider similar taking precautions as described for feed troughs to prevent his happening. Troughs should be regularly cleansed and disinfected to minimise the risk of cattle being exposed to contaminated water.
Only feed waste milk to calves if it has been boiled or pasteurised
2.9 Infected cows can excrete M. bovis in milk. As well as being a source of infection for people, calves fed milk from infected cows are also at risk of developing bovine TB, and severe outbreaks in calves have occurred through this transmission route.
The risk will depend on your herd’s TB status and the infection status of individual cows used to supply milk for calves. Feeding waste milk to calves also increases the spread of other diseases such as Johne’s disease.
2.10 It is not recommended to feed milk from TB reactors or inconclusive reactors to calves or other livestock. If it is necessary to feed your waste milk, then it should first be boiled or pasteurised to kill any M. bovis that might be present.
2.11 Never feed milk from another herd as infected cows may be present, even if the herd is officially TB free. The feeding of milk is controlled by the Animal By-Products Regulations.
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